Kosovo: A Chain of Causes (1225 B.C. – 1991) and Consequences (1991-1999)

Year of Production
Location of Production
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Original format
Printed Album (text / illustrations)
English, Bosnian and Albanian
History of Kosovo / Causes and consequences that have lead to NATO military intervention in Kosovo in 1999.
Research Period
1225 B.C. - 1999
First of its kind visual and textual history of Kosovo from its early days all the way to 1999. Hand-drawings illustrate historic analysis of the most important events given in chronological order. The objective was to highlight historic facts and contextualize causes and consequences that have lead to NATO military intervention in Kosovo and air-strikes against Serbia.
Special thanks to
Noel Malcolm and his publisher, Macmillan Publishers, for allowing us to utilize the content of his book Kosovo: A Short History as platform for creation of this Album.
Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbia
For the Publisher
Sonja Biserko


Author and Editor
Suada Kapic
Designer and Illustrator
Jelena Oksenfeld
Printed in
Belgrade, Serbia
© FAMA International


Because of their influence, those who watch, observe, analyse and explain meaning to the masses are considered a kind of elite; however if this elite use faulty methodology or have impure intentions, it can lead to disastrous consequences. We, the founders of FAMA, the first independent multi-media company in the former Yugoslavia, were fully aware of the sensitivity of the area in which we chose to invest. From the very beginning of the disintegration of Yugoslavia, we knew that documentation, of all types and forms, would play a vital role in the fate of current and future generations. In keeping with our own personal principles, our methods rely on fact, oral history and recorded documentation (documented documents). It is through our unique insight and gift of foresight that we have been able to develop a step by step methodology that 'makes the obvious visible'.

Gaining insight. This involves watching events attentively with an open mind as an observer rather than a participant, in order to note significant elements of the observed phenomenon; then putting these elements together to identify early signs of any emerging dominant trends that might launch a new process of cause and effect.

Continuing research through oral history. Those who participated in an observed event talk about their own experience of it, without commenting on other participants. These elements are recorded in photo/video format.

Structuring the research. Putting first hand facts and documented documents of a particular event, period or phenomenon into a structure that transfers this knowledge in a form acceptable to an audience, devoid of any indicators that would point to a conclusion. Readers, viewers, students, researchers draw their own conclusions on the basis of the given format.

Converting the structure. This phase involves producing a format suitable for mass production (maps, albums, films, encyclopedias).

Creating a study pack. We have created an educational pack consisting of different sections that can be used for different levels of education, as our unique contribution to the interpretation of the period 1991-1999.

Kosovo: A Chain of Causes (1225 B.C. – 1991) and Consequences (1991-1999)

The FAMA research team is convinced that to careful observers a research itself imposes the method most appropriate to the subject of a given research. Events / crisis / war in Kosovo, very intensive but not very long, proved to be essential segment for anyone researching the 1991-1999 disintegration of Yugoslavia. Signature at Kosovo in 1999 put an end to all wars in the former Yugoslavia. So we decided to research the issue of Kosovo through a method of chain of Causes (1225 BC-1991) and Consequences (1991 to 1999.). Why so far into the past? Because the mentality of conflict was one of the main elements of political manipulation, and causes were used arbitrarily, depending on needs of the moment or/and stakeholders. By studying the chain of causes, we were able to track specific events and reconstruct them through the consequences which produced new events, until it all came together in 1999, during the last act of the disintegration of Yugoslavia.